Introduction to Stonehenge
Stonehenge stands as an iconic prehistoric monument, captivating visitors on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England. Approximately 8 miles north of Salisbury, this site combines a stone circle monument, a cemetery, and an archaeological area rich in history.
The Enigma of Stonehenge’s Purpose
The precise purpose of Stonehenge remains shrouded in mystery. While there is no concrete evidence of its intended use, it is widely believed to have served as a religious site, symbolizing the power of the era’s leaders. The proximity of numerous burial mounds suggests its significance in commemorating the dead. Additionally, the site’s alignment with the sun suggests it may have been used for astronomical observations, aiding in agricultural planning, or as a place dedicated to ancestors or healing.
Druids and Modern Celebrations
Contrary to popular belief, the use of Stonehenge by historical Druids is doubtful. However, modern Druids and countless visitors continue to flock to the site, particularly to witness the midsummer sunrise and celebrate the summer solstice.
Architectural Marvels of Stonehenge
Constructed between 3000 and 1520 BCE, Stonehenge’s design evolved through six stages. Its uniqueness lies in the post-and-lintel structure of its sarsen stones and the distant origin of its smaller bluestones. The monument’s name likely derives from the Saxon “stan-hengen,” meaning “stone hanging” or “gallows.”
Recognition as a World Heritage Site
In 1986, Stonehenge was distinguished as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, a prestigious recognition that underscores its exceptional value to humanity. This designation was not just for Stonehenge in isolation; it included over 350 nearby monuments, creating a significant cultural and historical landscape in the region.
The Significance of the UNESCO Designation
Being designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site is a testament to Stonehenge’s outstanding universal value. It signifies that the site possesses unique cultural, historical, or scientific significance which is of global importance. This distinction helps in preserving and protecting Stonehenge for future generations, acknowledging its contribution to our understanding of prehistoric peoples and their practices.
The Wider World Heritage Landscape
The UNESCO site encompasses a much larger area than just the Stonehenge monument. It includes a rich tapestry of burial mounds, ceremonial pathways, and related sites. This landscape forms an archaeological complex that offers invaluable insights into Neolithic and Bronze Age ceremonial and mortuary practices.
Nearby Monuments and Sites
Among the 350+ monuments included in the designation are various burial mounds, henges (circular earthwork structures), and other prehistoric sites. Each contributes unique information about the social and ceremonial life of the people who built and used them. These sites include the Avebury Henge, numerous barrows (burial mounds), and other related structures, which together with Stonehenge form a comprehensive picture of prehistoric life in this region.
Conservation and Management
The World Heritage status brings with it a responsibility for conservation and management. This ensures that Stonehenge and its surrounding landscape are preserved not only for their archaeological and historical significance but also for their cultural value to humanity. The designation helps in safeguarding the site against threats such as environmental changes, tourism pressures, and potential development impacts.
Ongoing Research and Studies
Being part of the World Heritage list also encourages ongoing research and archaeological studies. This continuous exploration helps in deepening our understanding of Stonehenge and its surrounding landscape, ensuring that new discoveries are integrated into the narrative of the site’s history and management.
Historical Speculations and Archaeological Findings
Historical speculation about Stonehenge’s purpose has evolved significantly. Notably, John Aubrey and William Stukeley, antiquarians of the 17th and 18th centuries, believed it to be a Druid temple, a theory now largely dismissed.
In 1963, astronomer Gerald Hawkins proposed that Stonehenge functioned as an astronomical “computer.” This and similar theories attributing astronomical capabilities to the monument have been widely debated.
In 1973, archaeologist Colin Renfrew suggested Stonehenge as a Bronze Age confederation center. Other archaeologists view it as a seasonal gathering spot. In 1998, Ramilisonina proposed it as a monument to the ancestral dead.
Healing Center Hypothesis
In 2008, Tim Darvill and Geoffrey Wainwright posited that Stonehenge served as a prehistoric healing place, a theory based on the Amesbury Archer skeleton found nearby.
The Current State of Stonehenge
Today’s Stonehenge bears the marks of time and human interference. Many original stones have been removed, and the site has been disturbed by various excavations. Despite this, Stonehenge continues to be a site of awe and wonder, connecting us to the distant past.
Ongoing conservation efforts aim to preserve this monumental piece of human history, ensuring it continues to captivate and mystify future generations. Significant archaeological work at Stonehenge was undertaken in the 20th century, primarily by William Hawley (1919–26) and Richard Atkinson (1950–78). Their findings, crucial to understanding Stonehenge, weren’t fully published until 1995, when carbon-14 dating significantly revised its chronology. The Stonehenge Riverside Project, a major early 21st-century investigation, further refined our understanding of this ancient site. Timothy Darvill and Geoffrey Wainwright’s 2008 excavation, though smaller, provided important insights.
Early Significance of Stonehenge’s Location
Stonehenge was built in an area already significant to Mesolithic and Neolithic peoples. Around 8000–7000 BCE, hunter-gatherers erected structures near future Stonehenge’s site, marking it as a unique monument in northwestern Europe. The surrounding area features numerous Neolithic burial mounds and enclosures, indicating a long-standing tradition of ceremonial activity.
First Stage of Construction (3000–2935 BCE)
The earliest phase of Stonehenge dates back to 3000–2935 BCE. It featured a large circular enclosure, marked by the Aubrey Holes, surrounded by an intricate arrangement of banks and ditches. Interestingly, these features align with ancient measurements. The area served as a significant burial site, evidenced by numerous human cremation burials found in and around the Aubrey Holes.
Discovery of Bluestonehenge
A lesser-known component, Bluestonehenge, was discovered by the Stonehenge Riverside Project in 2009. Located on the River Avon, this smaller circle of Welsh bluestones may have played a role in the ceremonial processes associated with Stonehenge.
Geographical Origins of the Stones
Stonehenge’s bluestones, primarily of spotted dolerite, originated from the Preseli Mountains in Wales. Other stones, including rhyolite and sandstone, also likely came from this region. There’s debate over whether these stones were transported by human effort or natural processes.
Second Stage of Construction (2640–2480 BCE)
The second stage of Stonehenge’s construction involved the introduction of massive sarsen stones from the Marlborough Downs. These stones were intricately worked and arranged in a horseshoe shape within the existing circle. The craftsmanship, including mortise-and-tenon and tongue-and-groove joints, reflects a sophisticated understanding of stone working.
The Sarsen Circle and Trilithons
The sarsen stones formed both a circle and a central horseshoe of trilithons. The precision of their layout and the enormous effort required to transport and erect these stones underscore the site’s significance to its builders.
Stonehenge’s Continuing Enigma
The ongoing research and discoveries at Stonehenge continue to unravel the mysteries of this ancient site. While much has been learned about its construction and potential purposes, Stonehenge remains an enigmatic symbol of prehistoric life and spirituality, bridging the gap between our past and present.
Current State of Stonehenge’s Structures
The Giant Trilithon and Sarsen Circle
Today, only one of the giant trilithon’s uprights still stands, measuring about 23 feet in height. Of the original sarsen circle, only six lintels remain atop the structure, with two additional ones on the ground. The sarsen circle and trilithons show signs of possible incomplete construction or later disruptions, as evidenced by missing stones and the presence of stone holes.
The Bluestone Arrangement and Station Stones
Richard Atkinson’s observations revealed the bluestones were arranged in a double arc, the Q and R Holes, likely constructed alongside the sarsen circle and trilithon monument. The Station Stones, placed near the Aubrey Hole ring, align with the solstitial axis, suggesting their significance in astronomical observations or ceremonies.
The Surrounding Area and Its Significance
The Durrington Walls Settlement
About 2 miles from Stonehenge, the Durrington Walls settlement, comprising the Southern and Northern Circles and numerous houses, is thought to have been the builders’ camp. This community, encircled by Britain’s largest henge enclosure, indicates the scale of the workforce involved in Stonehenge’s construction.
Later Stages of Construction and Modifications
Third Stage: The Ceremonial Avenue
Between 2470 and 2280 BCE, a ceremonial avenue was constructed, linking Stonehenge to the River Avon. This avenue, possibly tracing the path of moved bluestones, aligns with the summer solstice sunrise and winter solstice sunset, further emphasizing Stonehenge’s astronomical connections.
Fourth to Sixth Stages: Reconfiguration of Bluestones and Addition of Pits
The bluestones were reorganized into a circle and inner oval around 2200 BCE, with subsequent rearrangements possibly due to Roman activities or later stone-robbing. The Z and Y Holes, rings of pits outside the sarsen circle, were added between 2030 and 1520 BCE, marking the final construction stages.
Stonehenge in the 21st Century
Cultural and Historical Significance
Stonehenge remains a symbol of humanity’s prehistoric past, drawing over a million visitors annually. The site is particularly notable for the summer solstice celebrations, which resumed in 2000 after a brief ban and now attract a large crowd, including modern Druidic and Neo-Pagan groups.
Visitor Center and Modern Developments
A new visitor center, opened in 2013 about 1.5 miles from Stonehenge, offers a modernized experience for visitors. The center, designed by Denton Corker Marshall, features an innovative architectural design, housing a museum and providing insights into the monument’s history and significance.
Stonehenge stands as a testament to prehistoric engineering and spiritual practices, its evolving understanding reflecting advancements in archaeological research and methods. Its complex construction stages, alignments, and surrounding settlements contribute to its enduring allure and mystery, making it a focal point for both historical study and cultural fascination.
Discoveries and Mysteries of Stonehenge’s Surrounding Pits
Recent Discoveries of Additional Circles
In the ongoing exploration of Stonehenge and its surroundings, two more circles of pits have been discovered, adding to the complexity and intrigue of this prehistoric site. These discoveries were made through geophysical surveys in 2009 and 2010, revealing circles at Airman’s Corner and another near Stonehenge.
The Circles at Airman’s Corner and Near Stonehenge
The exact dates and purposes of these newly found circles remain unknown, presenting new puzzles for archaeologists and historians. The circles, characterized by their distinct arrangement of pits, could have held posts, stones, or might simply be circles of holes.
Unresolved Questions and Future Investigations
Purpose and Date of the Pit Circles
The discovery of these circles prompts questions about their relationship to Stonehenge. Were they contemporary with the main structure, or do they belong to a different period? The possibility of these pits holding posts or stones suggests they might have had a ceremonial or astronomical purpose, similar to other features around Stonehenge.
Implications for Understanding Stonehenge
These findings could potentially reshape our understanding of Stonehenge and its surrounding landscape. As a site that has continuously revealed new secrets over time, these circles might offer fresh insights into the prehistoric people’s practices and beliefs.
The discovery of these pit circles around Stonehenge underscores the site’s enduring mystery and the importance of ongoing archaeological research. As investigations continue, these circles may unveil more about the enigmatic history of this iconic monument and its broader ceremonial landscape.
Common Questions on Stonehenge
- Is Stonehenge free to visit? No, Stonehenge is not free to visit. There is an admission fee, and visitors are typically required to book tickets in advance through the official website of the English Heritage, which manages the site.
- What are 3 facts about Stonehenge?
- Construction Phases: Stonehenge was built in several phases spanning 5,000 years, starting from the Neolithic period around 3000 BC.
- Astronomical Alignment: The stones are aligned with the sunrise of the summer solstice and the sunset of the winter solstice.
- Bluestone Mystery: The smaller stones, known as bluestones, were transported from the Preseli Hills in Wales, nearly 200 miles away, a feat that still puzzles historians and archaeologists.
- Who built Stonehenge and why was it built? Stonehenge was built by Neolithic and Bronze Age inhabitants of the region. The exact reason for its construction is unknown, but theories suggest it was used for ceremonial or religious purposes, astronomical observations, or as a burial site.
- Can you still walk up to Stonehenge? Visitors can walk up to a designated path around Stonehenge, but direct access to the stones is generally restricted to preserve the site.
- Can you still touch the stones at Stonehenge? No, touching the stones at Stonehenge is typically not allowed to protect the monument from damage. However, special access tours may allow closer interaction under supervision.
- Is Stonehenge older than the pyramids? Yes, Stonehenge is older than the Egyptian Pyramids. The earliest phase of Stonehenge dates back to around 3000 BC, while the Great Pyramid of Giza was constructed around 2580 BC.
- Who was buried at Stonehenge? Early burials at Stonehenge predominantly consisted of cremated remains, believed to be those of high-status individuals from the Neolithic and early Bronze Age periods.
- Is Stonehenge one of the seven wonders of the world? No, Stonehenge is not one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. However, it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the most famous landmarks in the United Kingdom.
- How many bodies were found under Stonehenge? Archaeological excavations have found the cremated remains of an estimated 150–240 individuals at Stonehenge.
- How many times has Stonehenge fallen? Over the centuries, several stones have fallen or been removed. Notably, the monument has undergone various restoration efforts in the 20th century to re-erect and stabilize the stones.
- How many people died at Stonehenge? There is no specific record of how many people might have died at Stonehenge. The site was primarily used for ceremonial purposes, including burials.
- Is anything older than Stonehenge? Yes, there are several prehistoric sites around the world that are older than Stonehenge, including Göbekli Tepe in Turkey, which dates back to around 10,000 BC.
- What came before Stonehenge? Before Stonehenge, the area saw earlier prehistoric activity, including Mesolithic postholes and Neolithic long barrows and causewayed enclosures.
- Which is older, Stonehenge or the Sphinx? Stonehenge is older. The Sphinx is estimated to have been built around 2500 BC, while the earliest phases of Stonehenge date back to around 3000 BC.
- What mystery was solved at Stonehenge? One of the solved mysteries includes the origin of the bluestones, which were traced back to the Preseli Hills in Wales, though the method of their transportation remains a mystery.
- Is there a second Stonehenge? There are several Stonehenge-like structures across the UK, such as Avebury and Woodhenge. However, there is no direct “second Stonehenge.”
- Why are so many stones missing from Stonehenge? Some stones have fallen over time, while others were taken away for use in construction or possibly due to historical vandalism.
- What is the oldest ruins in the world? Göbekli Tepe in Turkey, dating back to around 10,000 BC, is considered one of the oldest known ruins.
- What is the biggest mystery about Stonehenge? The biggest mystery remains how the ancient builders transported the massive stones, especially the bluestones from Wales, and their exact purpose for constructing Stonehenge.
- Are there human remains at Stonehenge? Yes, human remains, primarily cremated, have been found at Stonehenge, indicating its use as a burial site.
- What was underneath Stonehenge? Archaeological excavations have found various items under Stonehenge, including human remains and artifacts that provide insight into the people who built it.
- Can we go inside Stonehenge? General visitors cannot go inside the stone circle during regular visiting hours. However, special access tours can be arranged that allow closer access.
- Was Stonehenge once buried? There is no evidence to suggest that Stonehenge was ever completely buried. However, some parts of the site have been excavated to reveal buried artifacts and features.
- Why was Stonehenge abandoned? The reasons for Stonehenge’s abandonment are unclear, but it likely relates to changes in religious practices or social structures in the Bronze Age.
Continuing with our FAQ on Stonehenge
- Is Stonehenge man-built? Yes, Stonehenge was built by prehistoric peoples using tools and manual labor over several phases.
- Who built Stonehenge? Stonehenge was built by Neolithic and Bronze Age inhabitants of Britain. The exact identity of these people remains unknown.
- How long did Stonehenge take to build? Stonehenge’s construction spanned over several phases, estimated to have taken about 1,500 years in total.
- Who runs Stonehenge? Stonehenge is currently managed by English Heritage, a charity that cares for over 400 historic buildings, monuments, and sites in England.
- Did a man buy Stonehenge? Yes, in 1915, Cecil Chubb bought Stonehenge at an auction for £6,600.
- Did Stonehenge ever fall over? Some stones at Stonehenge have fallen over time due to natural erosion and human interference.
- Why can’t you touch Stonehenge anymore? Touching the stones is restricted to preserve the ancient monument from wear and damage due to human contact.
- Was Stonehenge ever repaired? Yes, Stonehenge has undergone several restoration and conservation projects to re-erect fallen stones and stabilize the structure.
- How much did Stonehenge sell for? Cecil Chubb bought Stonehenge for £6,600 in 1915.
- Who bought Stonehenge for his wife? Cecil Chubb reportedly bought Stonehenge as a gift for his wife, Mary.
- Was Stonehenge a gift? After purchasing Stonehenge, Cecil Chubb gifted it to the nation in 1918.
- Is Stonehenge guarded at night? Stonehenge has security measures in place, including surveillance and patrols, to protect the site.
- Why is Stonehenge in danger? Stonehenge faces threats from erosion, pollution, and potential damage from nearby road traffic and infrastructure projects.
- Is Stonehenge under threat? Yes, like many ancient monuments, Stonehenge faces conservation challenges and threats from human activities and natural elements.
- What is the true purpose of Stonehenge? The exact purpose of Stonehenge is still debated, with theories ranging from astronomical observatory to religious or ceremonial site.
- Why did humans build Stonehenge? It’s believed that Stonehenge was built for ceremonial, religious, or astronomical purposes.
- How has Stonehenge not fallen? The remaining stones of Stonehenge have endured due to their massive size and the interlocking joints used in their construction.
- Can you walk around Stonehenge without paying? The immediate vicinity of Stonehenge requires a ticket for access. However, the surrounding landscape can be explored without payment.
- Does Stonehenge have toilets? Yes, the visitor center at Stonehenge is equipped with facilities including toilets.
- Is Stonehenge a no-fly zone? Stonehenge is not officially a no-fly zone, but drone flying is restricted without permission.
- What are 3 interesting facts about Stonehenge?
- Stonehenge’s bluestones come from Wales, 200 miles away.
- The site aligns with the solstices, suggesting astronomical significance.
- Stonehenge was built over 1,500 years in several construction phases.
- Why is Stonehenge in a circle? The circular layout is believed to have religious, ceremonial, or astronomical significance, although the exact reason remains unknown.
- Are any Stonehenge stones missing? Yes, several stones are missing or have fallen, due to natural erosion and past human activities.
- Can you touch Stonehenge? Generally, visitors cannot touch Stonehenge to preserve the site, but special access tours may allow closer interaction.
- Why is Stonehenge called a henge? Stonehenge is called a henge because it is an example of this type of prehistoric monument featuring a circular earthwork.
- What is the closest city to Stonehenge? The closest city to Stonehenge is Salisbury, located about 9 miles away.
- What was Stonehenge used for 5,000 years ago? It is theorized that Stonehenge was used for ceremonial or religious purposes, possibly including observations of celestial events.
- Why is there a fence around Stonehenge? The fence around Stonehenge is to protect the site from damage and to manage visitor access for conservation purposes.